Subtle Colonialism in the Form of Processed Foods

During the morning of our second day at Pine Ridge, the class stopped at the nearest place for coffee. This place is a combined gas station and grocery market, of shockingly limited options for nutritious eating and serves as the primary source of food for the Reservation community. As I walked through the aisles of the store, I tried to think of what I would eat if I lived on the Reservation. The only item I could think of consuming was a container of rolled oats and a bag of grapes. The aisles of processed, high fat, high sugar junk foods overwhelm the small corner of “fresh produce” that consists of iceberg lettuce and few other vegetable and fruit items of poor freshness and comparatively high prices. How can this nation of people be empowered in any way regarding their cultural identity and communal strength when there is a disturbing health crisis of food deserts, obesity, and diabetes?

One of the most obvious indicators of malnutrition is obesity, despite the common misconception that those who are obese are not going hungry. Pine Ridge Reservation, a vast 2.2 million acres, is a food desert. Western foods of the junk food corporate industry are killing the community. During one of my morning runs, I watched as a massive truck with the image of Pepsi-Cola on the sides drive through the Reservation. I felt this marked a subtle symbolism of the continuing colonialism today. Food is a huge component of cultural identity, by shifting food traditions by allocating infertile lands to Reservations and supplying Western processed foods in the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR), is incredibly problematic.

In 2010, there was a court hearing to address and review the FDPIR. In this hearing, issues of healthy foods, education, and allocation are discussed. A quote from the beginning of the hearing:

I have hoped to hold this hearing to take a closer look at 
the FDPIR program, which in my opinion, does not get enough 
attention. It is unfortunate, but a fact of life is that the squeaky wheel gets the grease herein Washington, D.C.: out ofsight, out of mind. And while the tribes have continued to 
work hard for their communities, they are, unfortunately, notalways given the attention they deserve from Congress. With 
that said, we are long overdue in reviewing the effectivenessof this program. In fact, we went back and looked at the 
official records and could not find--andI state, could not--
find a hearing that focused exclusively on Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations at any time in the recent
past. So your comments are even more important.

The full transcript can be found here.

Additionally, it seems from a  news article that the opening of a Subway provided quick and easy access to more nutritious and fresh foods than those available in the small convenience grocery store. The article and video can be found here.  And here, an interesting article from Native American Netroots, which is a “forum for the discussion of political, social, and economic issues affecting the indigenous peoples of the U.S, including their lack of political representation, economic, deprivation, health care issues, and the on-going struggle for preservation of identity and cultural history. I found this article to be particularly helpful because it details what individuals can do on a personal, local, and national level. The suggestions for getting involved on a national level include:

*Contact your members of Congress; demand that they fulfill the nation’s statutory obligation to fund the Indian Health Service (IHS) fully.

* Lobby for additional funding for culturally-appropriate diabetes research and prevention programs through IHS.

* Lobby for federal funding for tribal initiatives to maintain diabetes management and traditional treatment programs, including tobacco and alcohol cessation programs.

* Lobby for federal funding for investment and development dollars to bring healthy food initiatives and businesses to reservations.

* Demand that federal assistance programs distribute healthy foods, such as whole grains, and provide access to fresh fruits and vegetables.

* Lobby for funding for research and development, through the National Institutes of Health, the Indian Health Service, and the Association of American Indian Physicians, dedicated to prevention, treatment, and education programs in Native populations.

Posted in Block 2: 2014-15 | Leave a comment

The Reality of Residential Schooling

Few could have anticipated the cultural genocide that would take place for decades in the form of residential schooling. The path to such extreme cultural assimilation began in the late 1600s when John Eliot erected praying towns for Natives in an experimental effort to convert the indigenous peoples to a lifestyle of Christian beliefs (2). With the ideological belief of white supremacy, manifest destiny, and xenophobic perspective, President Ulysses Grant created a policy to set aside funds for the creation of educational facilities to be run by church and missionary society on Native reservations. The policy rationale became known and understood as ‘Kill the Indian and Save the Man.’ Richard Pratt, a key figure in the first erections of cultural assimilation schools argued that it would be better to have a cultural rather than a physical genocide. This philosophy laid foundation for the first off-reservation school, Carlisle. (2). An even more surprising rationale was publicly stated by Carl Schurz, the former Commissioner of Indian Affairs who felt that Natives had a “stern alternative: extermination or civilization” and eventually concluded that it would be more economic to choose a cultural rather than a physical genocide. It would cost “$1 million to kill an Indian in warfare, whereas it would cost only $1,200 to school an Indian.” These practices and policy initiatives quickly transferred over to Canadian governmental initiatives in which residential schools were erected and run by Churches throughout the nation in the late 1880s. The goal of residential assimilation was stated by the Law Commission of Canada as “to re-socialize people by instilling them with new roles, skills, or values. Such institutions break down the barriers that separate three spheres of life: work, play, and sleep. Once a child enters, willingly or not, almost every aspect of his or her life is determined and controlled by the institution.” (5). With this, decades of traumatically disturbing cultural atrocities would ensue.

The residential school system abducted children from their homes as young as three to age eighteen, removing them from their families, communities, and placing them under the care of Christian educators. In Canada, over 150,000 Aboriginal children spent time in residential schools, and experienced malnourishment, inadequate clothing, rampant disease, physical and sexual abuse, and punishment for displaying any traditional cultural practices, especially their native tongue (1). In one case, John Boone, a teacher at the Hopi school, had sexually abused over 142 boys (2). It was later discovered through investigation that schools were involved in pedophile rings and children were involuntarily sterilized as well as used for medical experimentation.

In the lens of the sacred, residential schools were extensions of a sacred narrative of missionary work to civilize and ‘elevate’ Aboriginal peoples (1.) Children were forced to worship as Christians and speak English. Torture was used as punishment for children who didn’t comply with the strict assimilative ways. In Canada, chronic underfunding increased the issue of malnourishment, inadequate clothing, disease, and forced manual labor. Residential schools operated as late as the 1960s in Canada and as late as the 1980s in the United States. While the abuse and practices of cultural assimilation were incredibly similar amongst the American and Canadian residential boarding schools, the government response to the appalling history of forced assimilation is vastly different.
The Canadian response began with the investigation and Report of Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in 1991, which concluded the situation as a “reign of disciplinary terror, punctuated by incidents of stark abuse—continued to be the ordinary tenor of many schools,” (1). Public outcry followed the public investigative report and prompted involvement of the Truth Commission of Genocide in Canada to issue a report as well. This report detailed the involvement of church and government in the murder of over 50,000 Aboriginal children through the residential school system caused by instances of beating, poisoning, hanging, starvation, strangulation, and medical experimentation (2). This information, along with many other documented sources, prompted Canadian government to publicly and formally apologize while holding itself and the churches responsible for the abuse.  In 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper publicly apologized and solidified the apology by compensating former students over $1.6 billion (1).

In comparison to Canada, the U.S has remained mute on the issue, rendering the American public uninformed and uninterested in the need to address the history and move forward. One reason for this lack of response is due to the deliberate destruction of any documentation of student enrollment and what took place at the residential schools in the U.S. This is an atrocity in itself because the boarding schools violate human rights legal standards, such as the Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, and the Convention of the Rights of the Child (2).

Furthermore, even with the end to residential schooling in the late 1980s, the abuse and trauma is endemic. The residential institutions imposed powerlessness, shame, low self-esteem, and issues with self-concept. Children were taught that their way of life and their identity was inferior and uncivilized. Additionally, separating the child from their parents and family results in a loss of family structure and quality of family life (4). The loss of cultural identity through assimilation and loss of language is a traumatic loss. The exposures to such trauma result in long-term emotional and psychological issues, which create disconnection and de-spiritualization within Native communities. Today, there are over 10,000 lawsuits in Canada citing cultural genocide (4). In the U.S, there hasn’t been a formal apology, nationwide acknowledgement, any sort of reparations, or support. It is a disgrace to humanity and the ultimate shame.


Video used in class presentation:

















Sources Cited:

(1) = Woods, Eric. A Cultural Approach to Canadian Tragedy: The Indian Residential Schools as a Sacred Enterprise. 2013. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society

(2) = Smith, Andrea. Boarding School Abuses, Human Rights, and Reparations. 2004. Social Justice, Vol. 31, No. 4.

(3) = [Used in Film] Kuokkanen, Rauna. “Survivance” in Sami and First Nations Boarding School Narratives. 2003. American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. ¾.

(4) = Barton, S., Thommasen, H., Tallio, B., Zhang W., C., Alex. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors. 2001. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 73, No. 2

(5) = Llewellyn, Jennifer. Dealing with the Legacy of Native Residential School Abuse in Canada: Litigation, ADR, and Restorative Justice. 2002. The University of Toronto Law Journal, Vol. 52, No. 3


Video Links of Footage Used in Film Presentation:


Posted in Block 2: 2014-15 | Tagged | Leave a comment

I do not know this place

I do not know this place.

Every telling of history tastes an awful lot like past-tense with the qualifying pre-tense:

“was, were, no longer theirs, stolen” with the underlying tone of a little more than


I do not know this place. Because knowing requires understanding and distance limits

connection with what it feels like for you heart to stop beating momentarily as the truth

is reinforced beneath cinderblock archways:


I do not know this place.

Perpetuating cycles of poverty inflicted upon people by institutions of “protection” for the

sake of human progress; move forward, up, on, over, through to the means of destruction

because there’s a highest peak somewhere and the victor’s flag must occupy it.

Push out for preservation.

I saw this land for the first time beside a gas station and a tombstone; everything moves

around a center.

I looked upon this place as an outsider. I do not know this place. But the concentric

circles show themselves as songs raised up through the willows beneath soaring moons,

receiving the voices drifting the only place they can: up.

Blurring boundaries between realms unknown but so saturated with life that I felt they

must be there. Everything moves in circles.

Sacred land people sacred song prayer struggle sacred balance struggle struggle balance

word prayer song people land.

The layers remain beyond my comprehension with the language I have.

Without words, ungrounded.

My eyes fell upon this place as my eyelids hung heavy beneath the dark heat of the womb.

The skin of the Mother bursting with the ability to live again.

Resilient and ancient, pulling through to present.

Voices calling four ways to four directions of the earth and the spirits, they came in circles

of song around a center.

Beneath my eyelids, I looked up circles within my horizon.

Concentric circles dancing around a fiery center.

Open spaces were sharp edges introducing tension toxic stretching thin.

I do not know this place. But I saw this place in the messages that sink below the skin,

blood, bones, soul. Every breath a prayer exhaled to the winds.

I do not know this place.

But I saw this place. My eyes fell upon the beauty, strife, and struggle to back everything

that rightfully belongs.

I do not know this place.

But I saw this land breathing, pulsing, stirring alive. This place is real.

Everything moves around a center.


-Emma Brachtenbach

(A spoken word piece attempting to put words to the lack of language and understanding available to describe what I saw while staying at Pine Ridge.)

Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | Leave a comment

Hunting Rituals of the Northern Plains

For my final presentation, I looked at indigenous hunting rituals among tribes of the northern plains. I was unable to find many sources on this topic until I found Howard Harrod’s book, The Animals Came Dancing, in the library and it provided exactly the information I was looking for. I found there to be a great diversity of religious ritual practice around the hunt. However, there were certainly common themes and practices found amongst many tribes. One example of this was the widespread use of ritual bundles and the importance of the sacred objects within them. Another very common element was the presence of dances where people would imitate the sounds and movements of animals. The rituals often focused on drawing the buffalo herds closer to the villages and to further communicate with the animals in order to gain their perspective on the hunt as well. They used dead animal parts in order to communicate with animals, as they didn’t see these two things as separated as we do. What struck me the most while making this presentation was the fact that this used to be such a large part of the religion, but is now almost completely obsolete. This whole side of religion has become lost because the purpose is no longer relevant, but they should not be lost to history because this level of appreciation for animal life is something that our world needs to move back towards.

Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | Leave a comment

Media Team

We set out to document our time in Pine Ridge and create a meaningful video based on our experiences, what we saw on the reservation, and what the Lakota people had to say about a variety of things. Inevitably, the scope and focus of our project changed once we got to Pine Ridge and after we returned to Colorado. Our experience in Pine Ridge didn’t line up with our expectations. The people we had wanted to interview and focus our film around had a difficult time answering our questions in a straightforward way. We were confused by other media representations of reservations that we’ve seen. And we were confused as to how to go about portraying what we’d seen in a way that was meaningful and truthful to our experience. I don’t know if any of us were satisfied with the material we had to work with before starting the editing process, but we made the best of the content we had and are happy with the result.

Some of the questions that came up throughout the block that we attempted to answer:

  • What should the goals of any media be?
  • Do creators of media have a responsibility to the people they are representing?
  • What did we want to accomplish before going to Pine Ridge?
  • What are our goals in creating a representation of our week in Pine Ridge?
  • How do we capture and represent someone’s self-identity?
  • How do typical media portrayals of Pine Ridge (and reservations more generally) affect the people there?

We could talk for hours about the ill effects of the dominant media portrayal of Pine Ridge or about the problems people at Pine Ridge face. But we didn’t want to focus on these things because they weren’t what caught our attention. It’s often non-vocal things that don’t get enough emphasis in media representations—the subtle interactions, the gestures and touches, the land, the dogs. These are the things that we felt defined our experience in Pine Ridge and give the people there their character. Without further ado:

Posted in Block 2: 2014-15, Independent Projects | 1 Comment


I left the final pipe ceremony feeling absolutely euphoric. My emotions were soaring and I could not wipe the smile off my face. The ceremony was the perfect combination of prayer, reflection, honesty, and connection. To begin the ceremony we shared things we are thankful for. After smoking the sacred tobacco Celinda said she’d be tickled if we shared a touching moment that happened at Pine Ridge. Through this prompting I heard reflections and memories that had not yet been shared. It felt like everyone finally reached a new level of processing and understanding of what that experience meant. I was able to voice gratitude for an experience that I had not yet put in words. I was grateful for the opportunity to do so.

The lighting in Shove was stunning. The stained glass was fuzzily reflected off the stone green floor and when I would look up the actual glass piece was piercingly sharp and vibrantly colorful. I would allow myself brief moments of spacing out and gaze upwards at the window before concentrating again on prayer.

The entire ceremony was lovely but my uncontrollable happiness came specifically from the hugs goodbye. Unlike the first time we did this there was no awkwardness or stifled giggles. Physical contact is a way that I gain comfort with people. I frequently feel a lack of contact with people because it can make people uncomfortable. I try to be sensitive to peoples comfort zones and will stifle my urge to be constantly touching people. There is a significant lack of physical contact in the classroom and it may be for good reason. In our case, however, there was nothing more appropriate than hugging hello and goodbye. Every hug was accompanied by whispers of thanks, compliments, or I love you’s. It warmed my heart. Today, the next day, I still feel cheerful from our perfect conclusion to the block.

-Whitney Perry

Posted in Block 2: 2014-15 | 2 Comments

Placing blame

It blows my mind that the alcoholism rate for adults in Pine Ridge is 80%. The US National alcoholism rate is only 15%. This is just one of the many statistics that highlight the stark differences between life off and on the Res.

While there are a number of complex factors that go into, cause and perpetuate this statistic, the main factor, the core problem that all other problems on the Res can be reduced to, is poverty. If poverty were reduced, alcoholism rates would decrease. Reducing poverty requires a lot: food, water, living space, health care, education, community, love, healing, support, jobs, motivation, leaders, role models, opportunity and hope.

We often look to indigenous communities and assume that alcoholism is the bane of their existence, that unless they abandon their drinking addiction, it’s hopeless, and that it’s impossible to fix what’s already broken. This reinforces the idea that Aaron Huey, National Geographic photographer and indigenous community activist, put so well: that the last chapter to any successful genocide is when the oppressor can look at the oppressed and say, ‘what are you doing?’ ‘You’re killing yourselves, you’re killing each other.’ Americans blame alcoholism as the reason indigenous people have it so hard in the US. Well why are they alcoholics?

On top of blaming indigenous people for a problem that we created, we never apologized for stealing their lands, for murdering their husbands, for raping their wives, for all the evil we did. Instead we blame them. We say that it’s their fault and that they need to stop drinking.

My hope is that we, as a country, wake up, that we recognize our history and our shortcomings, and that we take action to rectify some of the damage we’ve done. While I don’t know what from this will take, it needs to happen soon and it needs to happen fast.



Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | Leave a comment

Media and the Lakota

After experiencing the final project presentations yesterday, I decided to dedicate my final blog post to the issue of Indigenous Peoples in the media. We had two interesting presentations on the topic: from the media team we learned about the Lakota of the Pine Ridge Reservation in the news, and from Sam we looked into the theme of Native Americans in media (literature, movies, video games). We spoke about the implications of negative press or media in which a picture is painted of the Lakota, or Indigenous Peoples in general, as victims, hopeless, lost people. We asked the question, is press in which this image of the Lakota is perpetuated a positive? People who said yes believed that while buzzwords like “hopelessness”, “ravaged”, or “devastated” were redundant and not effective, at least the larger social issues that the Lakota face were being brought to light in mainstream media. People who said ‘no’ to this question felt strongly that this type of media was dehumanizing for the Lakota people. They believed that hearing this narrative of their lives again and again in the media could only be detrimental to the Lakota. The majority of the class sat in this second camp.

I thought a lot more about this after our discussion in class, and I think I am still torn. I can say confidently that a piece like the Diane Sawyer one was inappropriate and pure sensationalization. That type of media is surely negative for the Lakota, and it barely raised awareness regarding the social and political issues that the Lakota face. But we also read the New York Times opinion piece, in which the author stated facts about the inequality and poverty that the Lakota face, and then his own opinion that in order for the Lakota to make strives to social and financial security, many of the Lakota must leave the reservation. This opinion was based in the fact that the reservation would never be able to create enough jobs to support its population. Sure, this argument was a controversial one. And the class felt that the author’s economic analysis was not grounded or fair. I think I disagree.

Throughout the class, my peers often argued that stating statistics or health facts about the population on Pine Ridge was dehumanizing for the Lakota–making the community a series of numbers, rather than a living, breathing population. I found myself frustrated with this conclusion. Of course, statistics are treating people like numbers–statistics won’t ever pay full respect to a culture or its people. But as a Sociology major interested in Public Health, I have to argue that statistics, especially quite alarming ones, are precisely what motivates many people to action. Although some people need to hear the personal stories and meet the people before they feel this motivation, many do not.

I never want to minimize our experience at Pine Ridge–I believe it was essential for each one of us to meet the people who live in the Lakota community. That said, I would argue that the opinion piece, and ones like it that state the truly alarming statistics about Pine Ridge, are not detrimental to the Lakota, but actually quite necessary if true social and political change will reach the reservation.


Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | Leave a comment

Completing the Circle

For my ceremony reflection, I posted on this blog about what it means to “Break the Circle.”  I finished the paper with these sentiments: “While I am still conflicted as to what exactly constitutes a broken circle, I now realize that I will never know the full extent of what the circle means and how it embodies itself, as its meaning will continue to evolve over time.  The embodiment of the circle is ever changing, adapting with the culture and it seems that, even if the circle is often interrupted by change, it may never fully be broken.”  As we finished up with our final pipe ceremony yesterday, I had an overpowering feeling of the significance of the circle and couldn’t help noticing that by doing this we truly were completing the circle.

It’s crazy how strong the power of association of memories is.  Sitting in a circle in Shove yesterday for Celinda’s pipe ceremony, my mind automatically transported me back to that initial pipe ceremony we had on one of the first days of this course.  I flashed back on all those initial feelings I had and, by reliving these, I was able to contrast just how far I’ve come in these past few weeks and how much I’ve learned in the process.  I’ll admit that I had no idea what to expect going into that first pipe ceremony.  I spent the majority of the pipe ceremony terrified that I would do something wrong that would ruin the ceremony for everyone or upset the spirits.  I kept reminding myself to listen to follow Celinda’s orders – just a pinch of tobacco, grab the pipe with your left hand first, don’t break the circle, no wearing metal jewelry, allow yourself to be a “hollow bone.”  All I could focus on was following these instructions and trying not to break the circle, made up of a class full of people I knew barely, if at all.  I was unfamiliar with the chants, with the meaning of “Mitakuye Oyasin,” all my relations.  When it came time to give everyone hugs at the end of the ceremony I felt slightly uncomfortable hugging people I had barely ever met.  My first pipe ceremony unraveled in that way; above all else, it was constituted by a state of heavy emotional vulnerability on my part, being thrown into a culture I knew nothing about.

The pipe ceremony I attended yesterday brought all these memories flooding back to me and allowed me to see just how much I’ve grown this block.  This time the words being chanted were familiar and I was surrounded by a community of people I have grown to love and trust over the past month.  We had gone everything together, from that very first pipe ceremony, to arriving at Pine Ridge, to that very first sweat lodge, to Bear Butte, back to CC where we all struggled to assimilate back into the larger CC community, and finally to this final pipe ceremony.  We had truly formed a community.

At the end of yesterday’s pipe ceremony, it came time to hug everyone in the circle.  This time, I was grateful for the hugs, having formed some sort of a connection with everyone in the class.  After giving my final hug, I returned to my spot and realized that I had walked the full circle.  I looked around and realized that, through the hugging process, the circle had literally grown smaller and now everyone was closer.  And I knew then that, no matter what sort of relationship our class has following this block, we can continue to walk the circle in the future, but for now the circle has undoubtedly been completed.  Four weeks ago I struggled to grasp what the “circle” was that Celinda was speaking of.  Now I understand its true capacity.  And I now know that the circle can never truly be broken.

Mitakuye Oyasin, my friends.

Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | Leave a comment

My Time At Pine Ridge

When I first came to Pine Ridge I felt scared and alone

could not shake the feeling that this was not my home

yet I gave it an open heart and mind

and left myself open to whatever I could find


Coming to sweat I tried to be still and calm

tried to let the love in with an open palm

going into the sweat pushed me into the dark

and I sat waiting for a healing spark

yet when the steam began to build and grow

all the memories began to rush and flow

as Justin beat the drum and chanted

I looked back and realized I took a lot of things for granted


I sat in the lodge in a panic as by body began to shake

as my skin felt like it was going to bake

I felt something larger reach out to me

and I felt what I really wanted to be

someone who people looked to for comfort and joy

not just a larger and terrified boy

how I needed to let go of my hurt and pain

and not leave it as a stain

for me to put the sadness and anger in the sweat

and to let it leave with no more regret


The feeling when I was comforted outside the lodge

left me with a feeling I could not anymore dodge

“Maybe people see something in me that is good”

even when I feel that I was always misunderstood

because on face value I did not think people found me appealing

even though I had so much kindness and love I was concealing


I was so nervous talking with people after the first sweat

but I had a new mindset that I had not tried yet

you are not a burden to others

these people are your sisters and brothers


I realized through this experience that confidence is contagious

and that feeling good about myself was advantageous

I would like to thank everyone involved

for helping me through what was unresolved

from the LittleBoy family and Bruce to the Lakota group

you have helped me to end the vicious loop


Thank you


-Raylon Silberman

Posted in Block 3: 2011-12 | 1 Comment