Posts in: Block 6
Well, the course “Topics in Literature: Vladimir Nabokov” has now ended. By the numbers, we sampled a chunk of his work: 1 poem, 1 essay, 1 novel-length autobiography, 6 novels, and 15 short stories (not forgetting the Stanley Kubrick film!). As a brief closing statement for the course, I found this line quite fitting: “so fast / Did life, the wooly caterpillar run” (Pale Fire, 42). This quote seems apt to share as a final reflection for the course, and it is perhaps one of my favorite quotes from a Nabokov piece (I like caterpillars). It comes from Pale Fire, the final novel which we read this week. Pale Fire is a wacky novel in which Nabokov has created a foreword, a poem, and commentary on the poem. Yet, these components are created by a fictional poet and a fictional commentator, and the real story, rather than helpful information, is found in the rather lengthy footnotes. The fictional commentator instead describes a faraway kingdom, Zembla, and a series of fantastical stories that follow. I’m trying not to spoil some key details, but it was my favorite from the course, and I highly recommend reading it.
By telling a story through the footnotes, Nabokov cheekily comments on the nature of academia. He points out the absurdity of having an artistic piece with footnotes and forewords—often, they read too much into the author’s intentions, and it seems tedious that a piece can have commentary longer and lengthier than the piece itself. Nabokov repeatedly and pointedly shows some of the excesses of the academic world. For a final reflection on the course, this is something that I have noticed and reflected on as perhaps my favorite feature of his writings. In the final piece we read, the essay “The Art and Literature of Commonsense”, Nabokov reflects that “commonsense has back-kicked dirt at the loveliest of queer paintings because a blue tree seemed madness to its well-meaning hoof” (Lectures on Literature, 372). While not speaking directly about academia, I think that the point comes across here. Common and institutional thinking can often be dangerous to creativity and expression. The reference to the art and the sullied painting made me laugh, too.
Another instance where Nabokov tries to make the defense for art is in a short story about going to a museum, excitedly titled, “The Visit to the Museum”. On campus, I work at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, so I enjoyed reading a brief story about being in the museum. In the story, the narrator gets lost in the back corridors and finds himself lost and terrified by the arrays of displays, until finally he realizes he is back in a Russia that isn’t the one that he remembered. The narrator describes: “Now and then, on one side or the other, stone stairs, with puddles on the steps, which gave me a strange sensation of fear, would descend into misty abysses, whence issued whistles, the rattle of dishes, the clatter of typerwriters, the ring of hammers” (The Stories of VN, 283). The museum in this story is dark, labyrinth-like, full of horrifying sounds, and even a bit wet. While this does remind me of some more-or-less decent contemporary exhibits, this seems to sum up common fears about museums: that they are scary, easy to get lost in, and filled with indecipherable messages. I think here Nabokov critiques not the art, but how it is assembled in these back rooms—the art and the museum process seem confusing because of their institutional nature. My brief advertisement for the CSFAC is that I can appreciate that it is the opposite there. I will admit that the layout can be a bit wacky, but it is a museum that tries to make art easy and fun to access. And, unlike Nabokov’s description, there are no puddles in the museum.
Nabokov’s pokes at institutions and “common thinking” aren’t always so discreet. Those tired of reading and hearing about Freud, in class or in daily life, would enjoy the frequent jokes he makes at Freud’s expense (“the Viennese quack!”). He makes jokes at how quickly we jump to interpreting dreams and behaviors in a Freudian way. It’s hard not to see his point, considering the variety of disciplines (literature, psychology, social science) that employ readings of Freud in a liberal-arts setting.
The last three novels of the class, Pnin, Lolita, and Pale Fire each take place in school-related settings and feature eccentric atypical professors. Nabokov can’t help but insert snubs at how college institutions work, with their generic campuses and odd means of distributing funding. Humbert Humbert from Lolita is openly fascinated by underage children. Charles Kinbote from Pale Fire parachutes in from a fictional country to teach language at a college. Perhaps my favorite example of the against-the grain, seemingly against-the-institution professor is Pnin (from Pnin). My favorite description of him: “Desdemona…who came on Fridays and with whom at one time God had gossiped daily…happened to glimpse Pnin basking in the unearthly lilac light of his sun lamp, wearing nothing but shorts, dark glasses, and a dazzling Greek-Catholic cross on his broad chest, and insisted thereafter that he was a saint” (Pnin, 40). It’s a bit unpleasant (and probably unprofessional) to imagine any college professor like this, sun-bathing and mistaken for sainthood. Pnin frequently misunderstands situations and is the aloof and lovable professor that doesn’t quite fit into rigid academia. So here is Pnin, tanning under his sun lamp. Nabokov questions many institutions and means of common thinking—be them museums, literature footnotes, college campuses, or Freudian analyses.
By the time you have finished reading this, I should hopefully be in Orange County California, taking inspiration from Pnin with short shorts and dark sunglasses (though no Greek-catholic cross, no bald head, no sun lamp—but plenty of sunshine). I’ll be working on a last reflection that thinks about road trips and Lolita, but this is the last of my week-end (week-late) reflections for this course. What a time! I hope you enjoyed reading, and that you have a lovely spring.
The majority of our third week was spent reading and discussing Nabokov’s infamous best-seller Lolita. For those not familiar with this work, it depicts hilariously-named Humbert Humbert and the gross, evil, and maliciously sexual relationship that he seeks out with Lolita. Lolita is just twelve years at the start of the novel, and fifteen by the end of her time with Humbert. This disturbing relationship is even more complicated by their relationship to one another. Humbert Humbert first marries Lolita’s mother and acts as her stepfather, but when Lolita’s mother dies, Humbert Humbert is her only guardian. (We would also watch Stanley Kubrick’s film version of the tale–it was just as jarring.) A common theme we have been discussing in Nabokov’s works is how to grapple with narrators that are uncomfortable, perverted, and otherwise crazy, yet are given clever and beautiful Nabokovian language to tell their stories. Nabokov himself is an expert at creating these eccentric characters that make us cringe, while simultaneously loving and savoring parts of the novel that feel grittier.
One way that Nabokov accomplishes this in Lolita is with his beautiful descriptions of, well, anything but Humbert Humbert’s relationship with Lolita. A theme for our discussions was “America” and how Nabokov is able to provide exhaustingly rich pictures of America in the 40s and 50s. Nabokov composed Lolita in the late 40s and early 50s, and we learned that every summer he would take a road trip with his wife Véra out west. As an article in the New York Times puts aptly, “At the height of the Cold War, an expatriate Russian novelist with the resonant name of Vladimir was roaming through the reddest of red states” (link). This same NYT article even writes that the word “nymphet”, invented by Nabokov and used grossly by Humbert Humbert to describe Lolita, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary. Nabokov’s works are filled with self-conscious reflections on what it means to be a Russian émigré writer now living in the United States, and he makes big efforts to integrate himself as an artist by familiarizing himself with English—the creation of nymphet, for instance. But another possible way that Nabokov fixes himself into American culture and literature is by taking these road trips—a classic staple and fascination of many classic U.S. novels. Corinne, our professor, informs us that Nabokov composed most of Lolita while he was on these trips with his wife. In addition to writing and seeing the West, Nabokov of course also hunted for butterflies.
Nabokov’s descriptions of The American West should still resonate with us today in a variety of non-natural scenes—whether from places we have heard about in a history textbook, or those places we see as trying to pass as having an “authentic” vintage style (don’t fall for it!), or places that simply haven’t changed. A drive towards Manitou Springs shows some of these styles, especially with some of the smaller roadside motels and diners. As usual, no description of Nabokov’s writing is complete without sharing some of his own words:
“There is nothing louder than an American hotel; and, mind you, this was supposed to be a quiet, cozy, old-fashioned, homey place—“gracious living” and all that stuff. The clatter of the elevator’s gate—some twenty yards northeast of my head but as clearly perceived as if it were inside my left temple—alternated with the banging and booming of the machine’s various evolutions and lasted well beyond midnight.”
“We passed and re-passed through the whole gamut of American roadside restaurants, from the lowly Eat with its deer head (dark trace of long tear at inner canthus), “humorous” picture post cards…impaled guest checks, life savers, sunglasses, adman visions of celestial sundaes, one half of a chocolate cake under glass, and several horribly experienced flies zigzagging over the sticky sugar-pour on the ignoble counter; and all the way to the expensive place with the subdued lights, preposterously poor table linen, inept waiters (ex-convicts or college boys).”
Being both an émigré and a writer Nabokov saw a lot of the subtleties and nuances of sales and experiences being advertised in The American West with a keen attention to all of the odd details. His descriptions of diners and of the hotels resonate with me. Next week I will be taking a road trip West from Colorado to California, and in a final post hope to share how his descriptions hold up today, and even share how he describes the beauty of the untouched West.
On a final and sweet note from the week, Corinne invited us to her home for a class dinner with her and her family (and no, it did not align with Nabokov’s description of American eateries with the “subdued lights” and “preposterously poor table linen”). With a paper due the following day, we found that the Mediterranean food, the informal class gathering, and even a silly book with no pictures were all a lovely way to relax and finish our week as a class (Thank you again, Corinne!).
As sixth block draws close, so does my time as a blogger for this course. The past few weeks and especially this previous week has been a comforting notion to my past as a band nerd/geek. The correct terminology has long been debated, with band geek having been notoriously prominent. Nonetheless, this week our class learned about the Romantic era, an intellectual and artistic movement that began in the late 18th century. As its name suggests, the Romantic era emphasized the emotions of the heart thus highlighting the individual, heroism, and imagination. These themes characterized numerous works of literature, painting, and music during this time. Artists and composers of this era include Richard Wagner, Franz Schubert, and Giuseppe Verdi just to name a few. Their compositions are often perceived as criticism and rejection of the ideas of order and to some extent, ideals of the Enlightenment.
This week we also watched Rigoletto by Verdi. Within its three acts, we watched and listened to several beautiful arias and recitatives. By the end of the opera, I was both moved and astonished by Gilda’s compassionate sacrifice for her father Rigoletto and lover the Duke. In contrast to Don Giovanni, Rigoletto was comparably more tragic, perhaps because of the reverence for the expression of emotions and the goodness of humanity. These ideals are representative of the Romantic era.
In addition, much of the music from the romantic period reminded me of my time in concert band as a flutist. It is a warm and welcoming embrace because I started performing in 5th grade and throughout high school. Hence, the compositions that we listen to in class evoke memories of the rigor and passion of being part of a band. The nostalgia presses me to visit my band directors, to read music and play the flute again. It is then when I recall that I am listening to Romantic music which is branded by human sentiments. It is no wonder why the music of this era is called Romantic and I am grateful for this class. With this, I must say my farewell as this will be my last blog post. I enjoyed writing for this course. Thanks for reading.
My tardy Week 2 post (it’s now Week 3 on the Block Plan) for the Nabokov course reflects on nature. Nabokov frequently uses imagery from nature and the natural world in his writing. I mentioned that Nabokov was fascinated by butterflies throughout his entire life. As a child, he would spend time outdoors with his nets and collection materials. In his later years, travel and hiking often revolved on where he could see more (and hopefully see new) butterflies. So, his extensive time in the outdoors gave him a plenty amount of time to think about the natural world, and, as a result, a bountiful supply of images. His years in Europe and in America allowed him to travel, with much delight, as well. His writing is frequently populated with thick descriptions that foster and appreciation for the beauty of the natural world.
Our readings this week focused upon a crazed prisoner in a wacky prison, a trip to the museum that goes awry, and a famous king. The highlight for me, however, was reading the short story “Cloud, Castle, Lake.” The subject of the story, Vasiliy Ivanovich, has won a free trip by train across his country. The highlight of the trip was simply seeing a cloud, a castle, and a lake all together. In this story, I was especially reminded of Colorado College and cross-country road trips. The landscapes in Colorado and in surrounding states aren’t just beautiful, but quickly-changing. A drive to California takes you through snow-tipped mountains, cavernous hills, and slow dusty deserts. Vasiliy notices this as he is driving: “Trees appeared in groups and singly, revolving coolly and blandly, displaying the latest fashions. The blue dampness of a ravine. A memory of love, disguised as a meadow. Wispy clouds—greyhounds of heaven.” Nabokov writes so tenderly about the fleeting images that come and go on a trip. It’s almost impossible not to make the connection to the CC (or, the Western, the American) road trip.
Vasiliy is a Russian émigré in a German-speaking country, and so this trip was an opportunity to see more of the country. Coming from the Boston area, I have had certain moments where I’m awestruck of the scenery here. A familiar favorite might be the mountain ranges going from Nevada into Southern California. The most special and climactic moment of the short story is when he sees the cloud, the castle, and the lake. I wrote in my last post that I would be using some of Nabokov’s writings, so, here we go:
“That very happiness of which he had once half dreamt was suddenly discovered. It was a pure, blue lake, with an unusual expression of its water. In the middle, a large cloud was reflected in its entirety. On the other side, on a hill thickly covered with verdure (and the darker the verdure, the more poetic it is), towered, arising from dactyl to dactyl, an ancient black castle. Of course, there are plenty of such views in Central Europe, but just this one—in its inexpressible and unique harmoniousness of its three principle parts, in its smile, in some mysterious innocence it had, my love! my obedient one!—was something so unique, and so familiar, and so long-promised, and to so understood the beholder that Vasiliy Ivanovich even pressed his hand to his heart, as if to see whether his heart was there in order to give it away.”
What love he has for such a simple and fleeting scene! Whether it is driving, hiking, flying, you name it—I know we can all think of brief places that might have struck us in a profound way.
This week we watched Don Giovanni, an opera buffa collaboration arranged by the well-known Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the Venetian poet Lorenzo Da Ponte. Although Don Giovanni is categorized as an opera buffa because of its copious amounts of comedy, it is also accompanied by several somber and serious themes. The elements of humor integrated throughout the opera include the jests made by Don Giovanni’s servant, but the serious aspects pertain to the larger scheme of the characters. For example, the persona of Don Giovanni is portrayed as the ultimate womanizer who seeks to impart his love to all women as it would be a crime for those who do not receive it. He can be easily viewed as the charming villain. Another perspective, however, could consider him a man ahead of his time. Unlike the other characters present in the opera, the Don is not veered by religious dogma or the confines of society. In fact, he challenges others to abandon their life dictated by religion and convention.
The serious elements of the opera are also noted in Mozart’s novel use of different melodies to depict the various emotional states of the characters. In this way, he captured the character’s essence and state of emotion.
For instance, the duet between Don Giovanni and Zerlina reveals the masterful techniques developed by Mozart. In this scene, the Don attempts to woo Zerlina although she is to be wedded to Masetto. The music accompanying her part of the duet reveals Zerlina’s state of mind while the text suggests otherwise. Zerlina’s melody follows a melodic contour inflected with chromatic accents and non-harmonic tones that disrupt the emotional direction of her melody. In other words, the music exposes her indecision and covet for Don Giovanni. She is, therefore, not the innocent peasant girl but rather, a cunning woman who is willing to violate social rules for the Don. Accordingly, this is a theme that may be viewed as serious because it represents the surreptitious desires to stray away from the traditional conventions during Mozart’s time.
In summary, I believe that Mozart blurred the distinction between an opera buffa and seria. It was his inclusion of comedy, drama, and tragedy made Don Giovanni a success that continues to secure audiences even today.
Hi, My name is Ryan and I will be blogging for the Block 6 class titled “Topics in Comparative Literature: Vladimir Nabokov”. This class will be focusing on the writings Vladimir Nabokov, the author most notoriously known for writing Lolita.
We spent the majority of our first week reading and reflecting on Nabokov’s autobiography Speak, Memory. Originally from St. Petersburg Russia, Nabokov would frequently move over the course his career. He would study in Cambridge, England, before living in Berlin, Paris, and eventually the United States.
His autobiography is much more intricate and complicated than just where has lived, and what he has accomplished, however. Nabokov writes passionately about various things that repeatedly occurred in the first part of his life: phantoms and ghosts, repeated childhood affairs, and searches for butterflies (he had some named after him). These details, we learn, will repeatedly pop up in his writings. His style of writing about himself is profound and poetic as he often prophesizes what it means to have and to live retroactively through memories.
After finishing this piece, the class is anticipating a block that savors Nabokov’s tasty and clever writing—a joy of the class is reading the passages out loud. So, talking about Nabokov’s writing isn’t complete without sharing a bit of it: “A sense of security, of well-being, of summer warmth pervades my memory. That robust reality makes a ghost of the present. The mirror brims with brightness; a bumblebee has entered the room and bumps against the ceiling. Everything is as it should be, nothing will ever change, nobody will ever die.”
Over the course of the block, we will be reading six of his novels. I’m looking forward to sharing more about the class, and about his writing!
Have you ever had a class fewer than five students? Well, our Music in Western Culture course (MU150) this block consists of only two students including myself! At the beginning of the first week, I was a little intimidated by the class size. A class this small means that class discussions are fueled by only three of us. Now, this isn’t a terrible thing at all but a dollop of shyness can make daily class conservations petrifying. What if I say something wrong? What if I offend them? What do I do if they look me in the eye? Hence, on the first day, I was hesitant to even offer a modern pop song for the beginning of class. How hard was that? Difficult.
“Make mistakes!” as our professor, Dr. Rakefet Bar-Sadeh, would exclaim for the first few days. She urges that we can only grow and discover ourselves -our limits and potentials- if we are brave enough to make mistakes. It is a fierce reminder that few things should get in the way of our education and self-discovery. The rest of the week demanded even more dialogue and by Friday, I was speaking out at least twice a day as I grew comfortable with my classmate and teacher. My gradual confidence to speak every day may seem small, but it’s a huge step for me and a rewarding one. I encourage every student to speak up at least once in the classroom and build your confidence from there.
In addition, Dr. Rakefet Bar-Sadeh strives in creating an interdisciplinary education. With a B.A. in Mathematics and Physics and her Ph.D. in Musicology, she believes that learning should draw knowledge from all academic disciplines to consider new ideas and reason across boundaries. For instance, she insisted that I write my final paper relating to Western music and the biological sciences since I intend to be a molecular biology major. Thus, the notion of my paper discusses the anatomy of the birds’ respiratory-vocal system and the use of bird vocalization in Western music! Dr. Rakefet Bar-Sadeh uses the advantages of a small class setting to create a more personalized and interdisciplinary education for her students.
Dr. Rakefet Bar-Sadeh is a visiting professor from Israel who is teaching two blocks for Spring 2019. She has contributed to academic works regarding Israeli composers born before the declaration of the state of Israel and educated in Europe and their impact on new movements of contemporary music in Israel. Dr. Rakefet Bar-Sadeh is a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and also works as a consultant for the Canada Royal Conservatory. She is married and a proud mother of two children. Her next block is Jewish Music (MU224) so be sure to take the class with her!
Overall, I am excited for what the next few weeks have to offer. Here’s a selfie of our class!
As I mentioned int the last post, Lazendorf came and played a concert on Thursday. They call themselves an experiment, not a band. They rarely record songs and have nothing written down. Lanzendorf is made up of Bryan Devendorf, Scott Devendorf, and Ben Lanz. Bryan and Scott are brothers, both play with The National. Bryan is the drummer and Scott is the bassist. Ben often plays with The National, among other groups and they all seem to be good friends.
I walked into the concert at Packard Hall. Packard often has classical music, I could tell this was going to be different. The hall was set up with three tents, two on the stage and one up above. Inside the tents there were some lanterns and the stage lights were dimmed down. Lanzendorf walked onto the stage with green jumpsuits on, they did not say a word and began playing. The music was like being in a trance. It was incredibly mellow, they were jamming the whole time improvising every song. They all had a true mastery of their instruments and the digital looping equipment. There was a surprise band member whose name I think was Kate. Kate was holding a microphone and would hold it up to the amp occasionally. Then out of a secret door a man with a beard. also wearing a green jumpsuit would emerge fiddle with something and then leave. Ben would occasionally start singing incomprehensible lyrics and then stop. It was hard to know if they played one continuous song or many songs without pause. After about one hour of playing they stopped, people did not know whether to clap or remain silent.
Ben took the microphone and said a few words of thank you for being at Colorado College and being able to share their music. Then, they picked their instruments back up and the concert continued. They played for another half hour, there were times when it seemed very distorted and others when it seemed incredibly melodic. After the music stopped some people started leaving, but others started coming. The concert has a very different feel than most I have ever seen. The ebb and flow of people made the concert a lot less static than most. On the whole I really enjoyed the concert, the distorted feel made the music exciting and the melodies served as a good relief. I was incredibly impressed by how well they were able to play together especially knowing that they were improvising. The concert had a magical quality that was great to see. I am glad to know that Packard s has now seen more than just lovely classical music.
On the first Monday, 12 Biology majors filed into an Olin classroom, unsure what the course BY359: The Host Response to Pathogens, taught by Dr. Stephanie Schittone held in store for us. As a second semester senior, this course would complete my major in Biology, and would be the last science course I would take at Colorado College.
As an upper level biology course, the class consists of students who are both well-versed in general biology prerequisite classes (genetics, microbiology, etc..), yet simultaneously offer a wide array of knowledge, diverse experiences and course histories, This makes for an interesting, exciting, engaging course with intelligent questions, fun anecdotes, and exciting “Eureka!”moments every day. Eureka moments are one of my favorite things about science classes. That moment where a connection is made in your head, and you get chills down your body at the synthesis of new knowledge. You have done it! You have learned! You are now smarter than the moment before. This is so exhilarating, so enthusing, this is what feeds my soul. Learning is the most exciting thing that life has to offer.
One Eureka moment I had during the first week was concerning an element of the immune system. In the immune response, there are different levels of the immune defense that increases with strength and specificity as time goes on. One of these defenses is through immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins are antibodies that recognize and bind to foreign antigens (from pathogens) to neutralize the effect of the antigen in the immune system. There are different classes of immunoglobulins, each with specific, different functions. Let’s delve into an example. Immunoglobulin E (E for epsilon) is a class of antibody that recognizes parasites. Parasites have been eradicated from the United States due to water purification regulations. Thus, Immunoglobulin E has found itself bored, with nothing to do. What do you do when you are bored? The answer, of course, is obvious. You find something else to do! The theory is that Immunoglobulin E found itself something to do. Now, the exact mechanism of how this next part works is a little unclear; but supposedly, Immunoglobulin E has evolved to identify other molecules as potential dangers to the body. We call them allergies. While there is also a genetic component, allergies are the antigen that Immunoglobulin E “entertains” itself with. This theory is strengthened by the frequency of allergies in countries and continents with parasites. Allergies are very infrequent in countries with parasites. This can be explained by – anybody know it? – the fact that Immunoglobulin E can be found mounting a defense against parasites, and cannot find the time to be bored! AMAZING STUFF ISN’T IT.
Everyone knows what the stomach bug is. The common cold is …… common. More severe bacterial infections like MRSA have sparked public fear around the country. But what happens inside your body? How does the body fight off these pathogens? The 12 of us have begun a journey inside the body, into the lives of immune cells, and into the fight against pathogens.
We delved into the basic immune response almost immediately, and I was struck with how skilled the body is at protecting itself. Various levels of immune response work together to activate higher and more specific attacks on foreign bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The body is an exquisite work of art.
I’ll let this sink in. We will get more specific in a bit. Get ready!
Talk to you soon.
The past couple of days we have had the chance to meet some especially cool people. The first were Bruce and Gabe.
Bruce is a graphic designer, he started a company called Post Typography. His interest in graphic design began in high school, where he published zines ( hand made magazines); he was scolded by his principle for making the zines. Bruce is a tall man with glasses, he seems quite nerdy. He was also part of post-punk band called Double Dagger. A double dagger looks like this: ‡, the band name and its songs paid tribute to typography.
Gabe is a photographer and film maker, he started Folk Hero Films. Like Gabe, his interest in aesthetic began making zines, he also got in trouble for their publications. Gabe’s first break as a photographer came when a National Geographic photographer took him under his wing. The photographer took pictures of tigers and rhinoceros, Gabe assisted. Once he got chased by a rhino while on the back on an elephant. His first complete story came with the documentary The Harvest. The Harvest explores and organization like Make a Wish, except these kid’s last wishes are to go on an epic hunt.
Through Gabe’s work on The Harvest he and Bruce began their collaboration. Bruce made all of the opening sequences for the movie, which consisted of old paintings of hunters. The main collaboration, however, has been working on Gabe’s documentary If We Shout Loud Enough. If We Shout Loud Enough is about Double Dagger, their influence on the Baltimore music scene, and their last tour before they called it quits. Gabe and Bruce epitomize many of the concepts that we have covered in class. They embrace the DIY spirit, through music, typography and film.
The second guests came to our class today. Scott Devendorf and Bryan Devendorf of The National and Ben Lanz of The National and Beirut. Together, they formed a band named Lanzendorf, a combination of their last names. I asked them how they felt about the concept of selling out, which we have discussed in class. Some background, about twenty years ago selling out meant anything to do with conforming to mass media. This included changing your sound to become more commercial or licensing a song to advertisements. They responded that they felt changing your sound was “not cool” but that some National songs have been on commercials and TV shows. They told us that musicians no longer make money from CD sales, so putting a song in a commercial is an easy way to make some money. They told us that they had never really meant to pursue music, but had always loved it. Lazendorf started when the opener for the National did not show up, it is experimental and jammy. They are playing a concert tonight!! Talking to people that have such a connection to the indie scene has been a true highlight of the class.